Post traumatic stress disorder research paper – I paid someone to write my essay
Because all people handle stress on different levels it is very had to determine who will suffer from PTSD when exposed to traumatic events. Diagnostic criteria for PTSD include mla format citing a website in an essay history of exposure to a traumatic event and symptoms from each of three symptom clusters: A post traumatic stress disorder research paper criterion concerns duration of the symptoms.
The first stressor criterion specifies that a person has been exposed to a catastrophic event involving actual or threatened death or injury. The second criterion, or intrusive recollection, includes symptoms that are distinctive and easily identified of PTSD. These emotions manifest in daytime fantasies, traumatic nightmares, and psychotic reenactments know as flashbacks. The fourth criteria, hyper-arousal, most closely resembles those seen in panic and generalized anxiety disorders.
While symptoms such as insomnia and irritability are post traumatic stress disorder research paper anxiety symptoms, hyper-vigilance and startle are more characteristic of PTSD. The fifth criteria, duration, specifies how long symptoms must persist in order to qualify for a PTSD diagnosis.
Treatment for PTSD is based upon the severity and symptoms of the person. Modern medicine has made many advances in psychological theories and applications post traumatic stress disorder research paper to diagnose and treat PTSD. One article suggest that exposure therapy along with individual therapy was a means for treating patients that were diagnosed with PTSD. The patients were gradually confronted with anxiety provoked trauma-related images and situations.
Exposure generally lasted between min and each step was completed when the patient habituated to the trauma cues. The goal of this therapy was to diminish PTSD symptoms to a non-clinical level. These forms of therapy thesis for no witchcraft for sale by proper medications may be an effective treatment for PTSD symptomatology Paunovic, N et al.
To this day, Greg does not fly as post traumatic stress disorder research paper as before, is reticent to fly to the east coast and will not return to do business in New York city.
His Type II diabetes has considerably worsened. Traumatic events are profoundly stressful. The stress that results from traumatic events precipitates a spectrum of psycho-emotional and physiopathological outcomes. In its gravest form, this response is diagnosed as a post traumatic stress disorder research paper disorder consequential to the experience of traumatic events.
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is the psychiatric disorder that can result from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or life-threatening events such as terrorist attack, violent crime and abuse, military combat, natural disasters, serious accidents or violent personal assaults. Exposure to environmental toxins e.
Agent orange, electromagnetic radiation may result in immune symptoms akin to PTSD in many susceptible patients 12.
- Are the key elements of each study clearly displayed?
- Are the summary findings representative of the largest and most rigorously performed studies?
- Mirtazapine was another successful agent when used in the treatment of PTSD afflicted Korean veterans
- Following is a list of possible reasons:
- Some are part of comprehensive diagnostic manuals or instruments:
- Both medicines were successful in ameliorating both PTSD and psychotic symptomatology
- The work concludes by presenting a view into the future of PTSD treatment from the perspective of evidence-based medicine, which many regard as the break-open research of the next decades—systematic and critical research on research to establish and determine what is the best available evidence for treatment for the patients.
- The stress that results from traumatic events precipitates a spectrum of psycho-emotional and physiopathological outcomes.
- In addition, there are other considerations affecting the treatment appropriateness:
- Type 1 allostatic responses translate the organism aims at surviving the perturbation in the best condition possible and at normalizing the normal life cycle.
Subjects with PTSD often relive the experience through nightmares and flashbacks. They report difficulty in sleeping. Their behavior becomes increasingly detached or estranged and is frequently aggravated by related disorders such as depression, substance abuse and problems of memory and cognition.
This sample PTSD Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Spurred by inclusion of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the psychiatric diagnosis nomenclature in , experimental research has examined many facets of the phenomenon.
The disorder post traumatic stress disorder research paper leads to impairment of the ability to function in social or family life, which more often than not results in occupational instability, marital problems and divorces, family discord and difficulties in parenting.
The disorder can be severe enough and last long enough to impair the person’s daily life and, in the extreme, lead the patient to suicidal tendencies. PTSD is marked by clear biological changes, in addition to the psychological symptoms noted above, and is consequently complicated by a variety of other problems of physical and mental health. The syndrome was first described by ABR Myers — in as combining effort fatigue, dyspnea, a sighing respiration, palpitation, sweating, tremor, an aching sensation in the left pericardium, utter fatigue, an exaggeration of symptoms upon efforts and occasionally complete syncope.
This classic observation pertains to what we now know of allostasis, as we discuss below. Da Costa reported in that the disorder is most commonly seen in soldiers during time of stress, especially when fear was involved 3.
Whereas the onset and progression of PTSD is characteristic for every individual subject, data suggest that most people who are post traumatic stress disorder research paper to a traumatic, stressful event will exhibit early symptoms of PTSD in the days and weeks following exposure.
Because of the traumatic developments of recent years, and of post traumatic stress disorder research paper turmoil worldwide, it is possible and even probable that the incidence of PTSD will sharply increase within the next decade and that it may become one among the most significant public health concerns of this new century.
This threat is all the more serious considering the fact that PTSD essay on soil pollution in 150 words to the post traumatic stress disorder research paper psychobiological prognosis of PTSD.
The work concludes by presenting a view into the future of PTSD treatment from the perspective of evidence-based medicine, which many regard as the break-open research of the next decades—systematic and critical research on research to establish and determine what is the best available evidence for treatment for the patients.
Indeed, this post traumatic stress disorder research paper be particularly true in the case of subjects with PTSD, if the post traumatic stress disorder research paper predictions of a post traumatic stress disorder research paper rise in prevalence consequential to most recent terrorist and war events worldwide that involve US soldiers and civilians prove true.
Some are part of comprehensive diagnostic manuals or instruments: Some are designed as either self-reports or as clinician-administered instruments specifically assessing adult PTSD: The underlying phenomena of PTSD are probably centrally mediated.
Case in point is a study targeting rateit.com performing in the color and emotional Stroop tasks and control condition.
The control condition involved naming the color of rows of XXs red, blue, green and yellow. The active color condition involved naming the color of color words again with the same four colorswhile the semantic context of the word was incongruous with the color. The active emotional condition involved naming the color again the same four colors of emotionally charged words rape, bruise, weapon, and stench.
These words have been shown to produce emotional arousal The study examined the effectiveness of the Stroop task as a probe of post traumatic stress disorder research paper cingulate function in PTSD, because of the role of the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex in stress response and emotional regulation. After comparing it with the color Stroop, the emotional Stroop displayed significantly decreased business plan imperial college flow among the PTSD subjects in the post traumatic stress disorder research paper cingulate.
However, the emotional Stroop produced a relatively lower level blood flow response of anterior cingulate among PTSD abused women.
These observations may indicate that PTSD anterior cingulate dysfunction is specific to the neural circuitry of the processing of emotional stimuli. Taken together, these findings indicate that PTSD may have a neural component, which could significantly alter psychoneuroendocrine-immune regulation, as discussed below.
The prevalence of PTSD diagnosis varies depending on the assessment method.
Such differences in rates, depending on the assessment instrument may hold significance. Symptoms may differ in both intensity and kind among older and younger prisoners of war. In the paradoxical side, it is possible for an individual to be diagnosed with PTSD while reporting minimal stress levels; in fact, subjective stress can be seen as a confounding factor that can have an influence on diagnosis Such chronic and stable PTSD may not be clinically relevant and may not require focused intervention.
They recommend to measure symptom intensity with such instruments as the CAPS Such an approach could decrease PTSD-positive diagnoses among subjects with low levels of distress Allostasis and PTSD freelance copyediting that brings about stability through change of state consequential to stress.
Psycho-emotional stress can be defined as a perceived lack, or loss of fit of one’s perceived abilities and the demands of one’s inner world or the surrounding environment i. Traumatic events that trigger PTSD are perfect examples of such onerous demands that lead to the conscious or unconscious perception on the part of the subject of not post traumatic stress disorder research paper able to cope The perception of stress is often associated with psychological manifestations of anxiety, irritability and anger, sad and post traumatic stress disorder research paper moods, tension and fatigue, and with certain bodily manifestations, including perspiration, blushing or blanching of the face, increased heart beat or decreased blood pressure, and intestinal cramps and discomfort.
These signs mirror the spectrum of psychobiological symptoms in PTSD. These manifestations are generally associated with the nature of the stress, its duration, chronicity and severity. A group of symptoms, now referred to as the sickness behavior, is also noted that is associated with clinically relevant changes in the balance between the psychoneuroendocrine and the immune systems 35 — By the early s, Walter Cannon — proposed that organisms engage in a dynamic process of adjustment of social work essay physiological balance of the internal milieu in response to changing environmental conditions.
Stress alters the regulation of both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, with consequential alterations in hypothalamic post traumatic stress disorder research paper of Essay clean environment endocrine response controlled by the pituitary gland.
Autonomic activation and the elevation of hormones, including those produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, play a pivotal role in regulating cell-mediated immune surveillance mechanisms, including the production application letter for fresh graduate of accountancy events 35 In brief, the perception of stress leads to a significant load upon post traumatic stress disorder research paper regulation, including circadian regulation, sleep and psychoneuroendocrine-immune interaction.
In brief, stress is profound alterations in the cross-regulation and interaction of the hormonal-immune regulatory axis. The experience of stress, as well as that essay on importance of sports and exercise traumatic events and the anxiety-laden recollections thereof, produce a primary endocrine response, post traumatic stress disorder research paper involves the release of glucocorticoids GCs.
GCs regulate post traumatic stress disorder research paper immune activity in vivo systemically and locally. They block the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines e. IL-2 at the molecular level in vitro and in vivo, but may have little effects crystaldive.dk TH2 cytokines e. The net effect of challenging immune cells with GC is to impair immune T cell activation and proliferation, while maintaining antibody production.
The secretion of GC by the adrenal cortex is under the control of the anterior pituitary adrenocorticotropin hormone ACTH. Immune challenges release pro-inflammatory cytokines e. Stressful stimuli also lead to the significant activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a rise in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines i.
Paper Masters writes custom research papers on Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome and examine the stress disorder that consists of a host of negative symptoms experienced by an individual after exposure to a particularly stressful situation, such as combat, sexual assault, or serious injury.
It follows that the consequences of stress are not uniform. The psychopathological and the physiopathological impacts of stress may be significantly greater in certain people, compared with those of others. The impact of stress is dynamic and multifaceted and the same person may exhibit a variety of manifestations of the psychoneuroendocrine-immune stress response with varying degrees of severity at different times. The outcome of stress can be multivalent Allostatic regulation now signifies the recovery and the maintenance of internal balance and viability amidst changing circumstances consequential to stress.
It encompasses a range of behavioral and physiological functions that direct the adaptive function of regulating homeostatic systems in response to challenges 37 — The cumulative load of the allostatic process is the allostatic load. The pathological side effects of failed adaptation cover letter for job application sales assistant the allostatic overload. Allostasis pertains to the psychobiological regulatory system with variable set points.
These set points are characterized by individual differences. They are associated with anticipatory behavioral and physiological responses and are vulnerable to physiological overload and breakdown of regulatory capacities 39 Type 1 allostatic load utilizes, as it were, stress responses as a means of self-preservation by developing and establishing temporary or permanent adaptation skills. The organism aims at surviving the perturbation in the best condition possible and at normalizing the normal life cycle.
In Type 2 allostatic load, the stressful challenge is excessive, sustained or continued and drives allostasis chronically. An escape response cannot be found. Type I versus type II allostatic responses curiously reiterate Myers’ observations that his patients seem to abandon themselves to the emotion and the fear that assailed them, rather than engage in the effort to counter and to overcome the challenge, which normal subjects typically undertook.
Future research in PTSD from the perspective of allostasis may reveal a post traumatic stress disorder research paper helplessness component, which could become key in the development and evaluation of treatment interventions Fig. Figure 1 Allostasis refers to the psychobiological regulatory process that brings about stability through change of state consequential to stress. Allostatic regulation describes the post traumatic stress disorder research paper and the maintenance of internal balance and viability amidst changing circumstances consequential to stress.
It encompasses the Type 1 allostatic load that reflects the utilization by the organism of the range of behavioral and physiological functions that direct the adaptive function of regulating homeostatic systems in response to challenges i.
Type 1 allostatic responses translate the organism aims at surviving the perturbation in the best condition possible and at normalizing the post traumatic stress disorder research paper life cycle.
By contrast, the Type 2 allostatic responses reflect a load to the organism that is excessive, sustained, or continued, and drives allostasis chronically and that precludes effective escape from the stress. Psychobiological manifestations in PTSD and in complex PTSD leadham-internasional.000webhostapp.com of extreme stress evidently pertain to the same domain of mind—body interactions, which are elucidated in psychoneuroimmunology research.
The stress response, more than likely, underlies the psychobiological sequelae of PTSD. The relevance of the field of current research on allostasis to PTSD is all the post traumatic stress disorder research paper evident when one considers that subjects position themselves along a spectrum of allostatic regulation, somewhere between allostasis i.
In brief, the recent advances in our understanding of the adaptation of the organism to post traumatic stress disorder research paper challenges, the allostatic process, present a new and a rich paradigm for research in the psychobiology of PTSD.
Future research must investigate whether or not the dichotomy of Type I and Type II allostatic responses will provide an effective theoretical model for the development of novel and improved modes of intervention to treat PTSD. This should be followed by treatments with various degrees of demonstrated efficacy